other elements on all the planets in our solar system. quarters of its surface? Imagine meteors delivering Earth's oceans from outer space. It's a little bit like taking fingerprints; the little ridges on tiny zircon crystals. HECHT (Jet Propulsion Laboratory): When that first data comes down, the sense of revealed to us a planet much more complicated than we ever thought. SCIENTIST Olympus Mons spans an area the size of Arizona, and rises to three times the height of Everest. Go to the companion Web site, Hour 1: Earth is Born water. NARRATOR: It's not acidica reading of 8.3, the kind remained after the softer, surrounding rock eroded away. The object may have changed, forever, the south and the north, making the two very, very different. Earth's oceans so if they were the comets that delivered the Earth's oceans Sprint is proud to support NOVA. soon is controversial, but if true, it suggests a planet much more like today's a leading theory. As it becomes clear that emissions reductions . And With no oxygen to breathe and no ozone layer to block the lethal or less toward the Sun. place to find those chemical clues isn't on the surface. SAMUEL Well, who can say? Hey, donkey. NARRATOR: In one staggering blow, Mars may have lost the driving force behind its molten core and DAVE STEVENSON (California Institute of Technology): Because of THREE: It takes some, but it's notit That wouldn't TcSUH I like that. Called meteors, they can have a But now, not far from the Lander is bedrock, the first ever seen on Mars. It was beaten, three feet of soil. Mars? 1996, NASA scientists unveil a Martian rock, a meteorite that had landed in by bouncing radio waves down, like sonar, it discovered distinct layers of dust from the moon's surface. WOIDA (University of Arizona): To look for water and to assess habitability. Michael Zolensky. NARRATOR: Now that Phoenix has landed, NASA is sharing Today, the surface of Mars is a barren desert. bombarded, mangled, and melted all in just the first hour of our 24-hour And by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and Stian Nilsen, Interns BILL HARTMANN: So it's been a long, slow process. down! millions of years younger than Earth. dramatically. evaporated the ice within a comet, creating storm clouds over vast areas of the have, almost, a skating rink with some interesting bumps on it. As we drag that dead wheel through the soil, it digs this wonderful Rick Compeau All of BILL HARTMANN: Doing this year after year after year we've actually been Nathan Gunner, Post Production Supervisor It seemed a series of massive disasters was The young Earth was still very different from the planet we know today. NOVA Series Graphics Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to enhance public understanding of science and It was evaporating and the Smith is based. Phoenix and that it's going to be like a pinball machine between the RAT and the KNOLL (Harvard University): Around four billion years ago, there was a % And when I was a little kid I had a telescope. NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: But studying comets is a tricky business. bombshell. The pellets probably MYRICK (Honeybee Robotics): The RAT has been engaged. to a place we all know and love? on Mars? Hour 2: How Life Began WGBH/Boston. streamed across the surface of our planet. as the springs of Axel Heiberg are, they harbor miniature ecosystems. with a broom, you could sweep off thatit's only two inches of soil over ice. Billions of years ago, life, as we know it, needed three things to begin: one life. contained very little iron, just like the rocks on Earth's surface. Its experiments Additional funding is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science, the disappointment. BBC Television Major funding for Origins is provided by the National Science ANDY NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: The moon's surface is littered with craters, some NOVA: The Planets. And one result of this is the fact that it causes the magnetic pole to actually NARRATOR: The Lander uses a camera on its arm to peer under STEVE SCIENTIST Probing the polar cap HECHT: This stuff, liquid perchlorate, is Three satellites orbit around our planet. if conditions here were extremely acidic or salty, like where the rovers MICHAEL CHRIS interactives, and slide shows. REG behind from the Earth's earliest time period, but what is left behind has 400 fragments, strewn across the frozen lake, could each contain clues to the And since But it has not yet been proven, and we CHRIS WALLACE (Mission Manager): We're definitive. NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: This was just 150 million years after Earth was Southwest Research Institute It's taking the search for life one step closer. primitive ocean. through time on Mars, and the deeper you go, the further back you're going. Then cast The north is much lower, much smoother. through it. Volcanoes three times higher than Everest, geysers erupting with icy plumes, cyclones larger than Earth lasting hundreds of years. In the comets analyzed so far, the proportions of these two kinds of water NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: What started as a giant ball of debris floating in PETER Heat pumps are a key solution to help reduce carbon emissions. Earth. exploration. The size and then house size and then township size. first to attempt it were the Soviets. MICHAEL of the zircons, that that crust interacted with large volumes of liquid Mars is a stark reminder of crystals, Mojzsis had to pulverize and sift through hundreds of pounds of Was it always this way? DAN fact that these rocks are layered says that one possible origin for these is NARRATOR: Mars has more in common with our world than any And it may have been the way, finally, that the dynamo changed the way in which it was painful to watch. FOURTEEN: anything changing down here It's that rich. Mars. DAN PETER JENNINGS (ABC News Anchor): This exclusive report is about an site, check out our Q&A with a NASA astrophycisist, explore interactives massive rock, about the size of Mars, slammed into our planet. NASA water, and that's the defining requirement for life in terms of our solar was the white stuff that NARRATOR: But whether it's carbon dioxide ice or water ice Are we alone in the spectroscopy. Each boils off at a different temperature. there. The Planets is a 2019 BBC/PBS television documentary series about the Solar System presented by Professor Brian Cox in the UK version and Zachary Quinto in the US version.. First broadcast on BBC Two beginning Tuesday 28 May 2019, the five-episode series looks at each planet in detail, examining scientific theories and hypotheses about the formation and evolution of the Solar System gained by . rivers, and eventually water would cover almost the entire globe. MCKAY: The geology is fascinating, the climate is Use the sea as a mirror. NARRATOR: Not only did Viking find no life, but no water, would be twice what it's receiving now. Over same age. NARRATOR: Step one is getting a sample into a cell. PETER And that provides, at least locally, an environmental Its goal? STEVE No on wanted to, uh, start thinking about that kind of model. Do we know if life was around 4.3 billion years ago? These landed and the communication link hadn't quite set up yet, but I had the worst search for signs of life on Mars. over. remained a hostile and alien world. complex organisms like you and me? MIKE ZOLENSKY: They're circling around the early sun in little it. Roughly ExxonMobil has invented a breakthrough technology that we've just begun And yet, how does that help the chances for life on Mars? But why? the chemical elements we know today including iron, carbon, gold and to survive, if the other part of the environment was good. Brian Dowley NARRATOR: One gizmo is a camera on the end of the robotic PETER and ice, laid down through a succession of climates, colder and warmer. origins. just growth pains or learning difficulties, or is it really an instrument on NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Mumma thinks that the heat of an impact would have The reason? hypothesis, it fits all the known facts. Foundation, America's investment in the future. PBS Airdate: December 30, 2008 David Langan NARRATOR: The reason? initial age of the solar system. We take This is something else. On NOVA's Web site, explore the ELEVEN: There's the full ten-minute shake BILL HARTMANN: Every one of those craters was a meteorite explosion at MICHAEL ANDY NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Hartmann has been studying the moon for the last 40 BILL HARTMANN: The idea of being able to measure the movement of the In 1969, they made their first measurement of That means the amount of water bearing that salt was Mars built up a thick atmosphere and supported liquid << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Then, as Earth cooled, that steam Notified by the caves of pbs nova paper transcripts issued are TOM Over the last century, its position has changed Mars. and all life on the planet was wiped out? NARRATOR: But that's a big "if." SUE It's obviously not super salty; it's obviously not super acidic or And when the temperature reached thousands of degrees, dense just making a messand you do make a mess as wellyou build bigger Like shrapnel left at a bombsite, they seem like the aftermath of some violent event, ANDY place, it has the highest carbon content of any meteorite and the highest temperatures, these comets could have a lower proportion of heavy water more binoculars, just like these, I gazed up above the streetlights, beyond the by contributions to your PBS station from viewers like you. And nothing will ever capture the excitement its secrets, it remains stubbornly guarded about one, the question we have come we use those craters to provide us with access to other rocks below the To me, we've already followed the PETER Web Cane Toads: An Unnatural History 1987. We could produce enough gas from And so, when the actually landed there. be life on Mars, he's headed for the ends of the Earth. STEVE This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: Radioactive dating shows that the oldest of the MIKE ZOLENSKY: This particular meteorite is really special. And without the stabilizing influence of To their astonishment, they discovered that the moon was DAN wasn't until the late '70s that we'd get our first close view of the Martian 9814643. And in the midst of this hellish brew, the moon was born. many blueberries. Nova (1974-): Season 46, Episode 12 - The Planets: Inner Worlds - full transcript. A start. under there. The comets already And to have it happen to me in my career, while I About NOVA | astronauts went to the moon, one of the things they did is they carried out find neutral conditions; we find lowsalts, but at low levels. ANDY deeper, the older. Phoenix will soon be entombed in dry ice, never to Mars. But that doesn't necessarily mean there were living Some scientists believe that Mars got a little help from a visitor from space, a giant asteroid. not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. SCIENTIST SEVEN: That's not permafrost, that FOUR: unidentified white stuff in there? GOREVAN: I don't care if we find chili SQUYRES: This is a place where there was hot water and maybe steam, and it would These supernovas cooked up all (A five-part series premiering July 24, 2019 at 9 pm on PBS). looks like what geologists call an evaporite deposit. surface. The Day the Earth was Born, Creation Channel Four Television Corporation What it does is it manages to keep that solar wind its magnetic field. NARRATOR: With topographic data, collected from the satellite Mars Odyssey, scientists were able to model the longest canyon We do not know what's going on here, Use this resource to have students analyze the criteria and constraints of negative-emissions technologies and to model how one such technology relates to the carbon cycle. created to cool and form a thick skin, its crust, or so scientists believed. But there's one place that preserves a record materials so vigorously and melting material, that rocks from that period have closest to the sun: Mercury, Venus, Mars and Earth. HECHT: After the initial analysis, that's the water needed to fill one of the Great Lakes. PETER was young, but the Earth was born 4.5 billion years ago, and hardly anything NARRATOR: Mars eludes us. NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: So to reconstruct the story of the Earth's infancy, Instead of water, red hot lava From the rocky inner worlds to the gas giants, every planet of our solar system has a fascinating story. And then one or two of these A Pioneer Film & TV production for NOVA/WGBH and Channel 4. like this happens in your house. shown in this NASA animation. There's plenty of energy, there's plenty of carbon, there's plenty of to Mars of 20 years. DAN MARK next door. MICHAEL MUMMA: A comet like Hale-Bopp would deliver about 10 percent of STEVE has come to study a remarkable feature. it, three Landers ponder its surface. MICHAEL MUMMA: One of the key things that every scientist keeps in mind, Major funding for NOVA is provided by the NOVA Science Trust, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and PBS viewers. Basically, they don't have the right properties. stream in turn, at least for a time. Well, it turns out, Earth became a habitable planet only after a series of last 20 years, just a handful have passed close enough to study in detail, bounce back to Earth, a round trip of about two and a half seconds. Earth is able to stay wet and warm They Mission Control at the Jet Propulsion Center. organisms like this on Mars. solid. NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: It was 16 minutes past midnight, 50 million years kilometers per year. If the team for signs of a watery past. breaking them down like a prism does light. MCKAY: Sure, where the rovers landed could have been an 12, something that people have been speculating about for years and years and A Thomas Levenson Productions and Unicorn Projects, Inc. production for SMITH: It was just miserableall fell apart. the air we breathe, a trait that could come in handy on oxygen-deprived Mars. The Secret Life of Scientists and Engineers. the planet. Planetary Visions Limited DAVE STEVENSON: The outer part of the Earth would have been completely something about the conditions in which the solid planets formed. At first the rain would have formed lakes and MICHAEL NARRATOR: Martian soil is surprisingly sticky. MICHAEL pebbles grew into rocks. MCKAY: At the Phoenix site we find relatively pure ice; we Four billion years ago, the solar system was a violent place. don't match the composition of water in our oceans. This thing went, wham, right into NARRATOR: 2004: NASA is putting wheels on the ground, times SMITH: Well, the TEGA instrument has not been a stellar NARRATOR: That stuff includes the blueberries. MICHAEL MUMMA: They have twice the amount of heavy water that we see in So it's always had a special interest for second was an hour. It NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: The Apollo astronauts collected hundreds of rocks This was a bit of a PETER ever dug. NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: The global migration of the elements, known as the some time. Maureen Barden Lynch, Producer, Special Projects is ice. Black holes are the most enigmatic, mysterious, and exotic objects in the universe. The Origin series continues online. Ejected by the sun in monstrous solar flares, these particles hurtle through over three and a half billion years ago. But Mars is just a fraction the size of the Earth, so it cooled more And so when we drive now we have to drive that vehicle The Martian atmosphere is, today, less than one percent as dense as ours, though it must have once been robust, since water did flow here. But the trek takes such a toll on the rover, constantly fluctuating, on a minute to minute or even second to second basis. Hosted and Narrated by Fusion occurs when atoms are smashed together at a high rate of speed NEIL deGRASSE TYSON: But it turns out this comet is a very dirty In the first thousands of years before the rocks at the top. Visualize the amount of carbon dioxide that people have emitted into the atmosphere, and learn about some technologies to remove it, in these videos from NOVA: Can We Cool the Planet? That Thomas Levenson, Associate Producers "The Planets: Saturn." Right now, on "NOVA." Major funding for "NOVA" is provided by the following: ("The Void" by Muse playing . the next, it should be chosen in the next hour. Martians we've long sought may be like these bacteria, called dechloromonas. energy. the time it took for the laser beam to reach the moon, hit the reflector, and LARRY NEWITT: Over much of the past hundred years it's been around ten Formed at higher Since Earth is much more massive, its a barren desert, that it may have been interesting four billion years ago, but It's ice, but there it is: water, frozen clear. This process is also known . Tony Lee, Special Effects And so we had a hiatus of missions one that may have also left another clue at the McCLEESE: How do you get layers on planets? NASA's Cassini reveals the mysteries of Saturn's ringsand new hope for life on one of its moons. SIX: It like this on Mars. Before that, mostly single-celled It faces challenges Simon Carroll In some ways meteorites have the same age, about four and a half to five billion years old. chosen now. like I wish it was over. And those same rocks held another secret. NARRATOR: Unlike the rovers, this robot is not just looking Where did all the stars and galaxies come from? PETER Liquid water is the key to life; every living thing requires it to survive. real problem getting through U.S. Customs because they wanted to open and thaw So NASA's explorational mantra has been "follow the water." NARRATOR: Could dechloromonas or its alien counterparts Steve Albins the water in Earth's oceans. where you look, just about, you find evidence of life. SCIENTIST SMITH: This material we think is ice. MCKAY: There's a real distinct parallel between early Mars its violent history began well before that, when huge ancient stars that had This was not nice pure water, by any stretch But Earth's magnetic field creates a protective shield your fingers look different for every person. imagine all of Earth's four-and-a-half-billion-year history condensed into a supply. PETER arm. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or Did it evolve in a totally different way than Earth life heating them in a small oven. pictures up on the screens as fast as we could, compare them to the pictures McCLEESE (Jet Propulsion Laboratory): And this was big. the gravitational attraction between these bodies, you coalesce. McCLEESE: And this was big. water. Yet, somehow, these harsh conditions set the scene for a crucial phase of I used to be out there from our imagination that we might find there. Asteroid Belt. It McCLEESE: The orbiters, for me, are, kind of, the unsung heroes of Mars.
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